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TURMERIC back
1. Introduction
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is native to Asia and India. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric have been used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is very important spice in India, which produces nearly entire whole world’s crop and consumes 80% of it. India is by far the largest producer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Turmeric occupies about 6% of the total area under spices and condiments in India.
World scenario
Turmeric is also cultivated in China, Myanmar, Nigeria and Bangladesh. However, authentic figures about area and production are not available. Major area is in India which constitutes 82% followed by China (8%), Myanmar (4%), Nigeria (3%) and Bangladesh (3%)
Indian scenario
There is an increase from 162.9 thousand ha in 2001-02 to177.5 thousand ha in 2005-06. Similarly, the production has increased from 552.3 thousand tons in 2001-02 to 846.7 thousand tons in 2005-06.The details are given in table 14.1.
Table 14.1: Area, production and productivity of turmeric in India
YEAR
AREA ( 000’ha)
PRODUCTION (000’tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2001-02
162.9
552.3
3.3
2002-03
149.8
526.4
3.5
2003-04
150.7
567.2
3.7
2004-05
158.4
718.1
4.5
2005-06
177.5
846.7
4.7
Source: http://www.indianspices.com/pdf/state_prd.pdf
2.
Major producing states with production of last three years
The main turmeric producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, West Bengal, Gujarat and Kerala. Maximum area under turmeric cultivation is in Andhra Pradesh (69.9 thousand ha), where production is very high ie.518.5 thousand tons. Then comes Tamil Nadu (area 25.9 thousand ha and production is 143.3 thousand tons), followed by Orissa and West Bengal (area is 24.0 thousand ha and 11.8 thousand ha respectively whereas production is 57
thousand tons. and 25 thousand tons. respectively) Productivity of turmeric like ginger is highest in Gujarat. The details are given below in the table 14.2
Table 14.2: Area, production and productivity of leading turmeric growing states in India
STATE
AREA (000’ha)
PRODUCTION (000’tons)
PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Andhra Pradesh
58.4
60.3
69.9
320.6
417.8
518.5
5.4
6.9
7.4
Tamil Nadu
16.1
21.6
25.9
67.2
118.4
143.3
4.1
5.4
5.5
Orissa
23.7
23.5
24.0
56.4
55.9
57.0
2.3
2.3
2.3
West Bengal
12.6
12.4
11.8
24.5
24.4
25.0
1.9
1.9
2.1
Karnataka
5.4
5.4
5.4
26.3
26.3
26.3
4.8
4.8
4.8
Gujarat
0.95
1.02
1.4
11.1
14.1
16.5
11.6
13.8
11.7
Kerala
2.7
2.8
3.3
5.6
6.2
8.2
2.0
2.2
2.4
Sikkim
0.51
0.52
0.67
1.7
1.74
3.6
3.3
3.3
5.3
Others
30.3
30.9
35.2
53.8
53.
48.3
1.7
1.7
1.3
Total
150.7
158.4
177.5
567.2
718.1
846.7
3.7
4.5
4.7
Source: http://www.indianspices.com/pdf/state_prd.pdf
3.
Commercially grown varieties
There are about 30 turmeric varieties grown in India. Among them Alleppey and Madras (Perianadan) are of great commercial importance. Some of the improved varieties are: CO-11983, BSR-11986, Krishna, Roma, Suroma, Ranga, Rasmi, Megha Turmeric-1, Suguna, Sudarshana, Suranjana, Duggirala, Kodur, Suvarna, Varna, IISR Prabha, IISR Pratibha, Rajendra Sonia etc. Description of some of the varieties is given below:
Table 14.3: Some of the commercial and improved varieties
Variety
Characteristics
Alleppey
Highly coloured variety.It is grown in Kerala and is marketed as Alleppey turmeric.
Duggirala
A long duration type (9 months), major variety of Andhra Pradesh. Rhizomes are bright yellow in colour.Grown mostly in Guntur district. Yield of raw material 25 tons./ha.
Armoor
Mostly grown in Nizamabad district of Andhra Pradesh. Medium duration type. Yield of raw material 25-30 tons/ha.
Suvarna
This is a high yielding type released by IISR, Calicut. It has yield potential of 43 tons/ha.It has also high curcumin content of 8.7%
4.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
Use of improved cultivars namely, Suvarna, Suguna, Sudharshana, Prabha and Pratibha.
For control of shoot borer namely, application of insecticides and biopesticides (Bacillus thuringiensis product) need to be used.
Proper technologies for the storage of seed rhizomes, seed treatment with fungicides and insecticides and use of leaf mulches should be adopted.
5.
Harvesting season of crop
STATES JAN` FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Andhra Pradesh                        
Tamil Nadu                        
Orissa                        
West Bengal                        
Karnataka                        
Gujarat                       `
*The above graph showing harvest pattern in leading turmeric growing states.
Source: http://www.indianspices.com/
` `
6.
Arrival pattern
Turmeric is available in the markets almost throughout the year.
7. (a)
Concentrated pockets
The details of concentrated pockets of turmeric in different states are given below in table 14.4.
Table 14.4: Showing concentrated pockets of turmeric in India.
State
Districts
Andhra Pradesh
Cuddapah, Adilabad, Medak, Nizamabad, Guntur
Gujarat
Kheda, Anand, Sabarkantha
Kerala
Wayanad, Palakkadu, Idukki, Kollam,Kozhikode
Tamil Nadu
Karur,Villupuram,Coimbatore,Salem,Dharmapuri,Krishnagri,Erode
Orissa
Gajapati,Kalahandi,Keonjhar,Koraput,Belasore,Mayurbhanj, Phulbani,Nayagarh,Cuttack.
7. (b)
Catchment areas of market
Table 14.5: Showing the details of catchment areas of market of turmeric in leading states
States
Districts
Blocks
Andhra
Pradesh
Cuddapah
Jammalamdugu, Proddatur, Muddanaru, Kamalapuram, Lakkireddipalle, Rajampet, Rayachoti, Koduru.
States
Districts
Blocks
Adilabad
Boath, Mudhol, Nirmal, Utnur, Sirpur, Chinnur, Lakshettipet,
Medak,
Dubak,Mirdoddi,Siddipet,Sadaseopet,Zanirabad,Sangareddi,Narsapur,
Nizamabad
Madnur,Bodhan,Banola,Banswada,Kamareddi,Yellareddi,
Guntur
Piduguralla, Prattipadu, Ponnuru, Pallapatla, Repalle, Manglagiri, Puru, Vinukonda, Durgi.
Gujarat
Kheda,
Kapadwanj, Balasinor, Tharsa, Madhudha, Mehmedabad, Matar.
Anand
Sojitra,Umrath,Khambhat,Borsad,Sarsa,Tarapur,Undel,Vadtl
Sabarkantha
Khedbrahma, Vijaynagar, Vadali, Idar, Bhiloda, Himatnagar, Prantij, Meghraj, Malpur, Bayad, Dhansura.
Kerala
Wayanad
Thavinhal,Valatl,Hatika,Puthady,Kalpetta,Chegual,Thariode, Vallarimela,Koltappadi,Vayittri.
Palakkad
Tudikki,Mukkali,Korgad,Pallavur,Chittadi,Mudarachal, Parambikolam, Elattodu, Kollangod, Naitala, Chittu
Idukki
Painavu,Nadunkandam,Devikulam,Todupulai,Piramad.
Kollam
Tekku,Todi,Karupra,Veliyam,Kanur,Anchal,Pallinam,
Kozhikode
Chekkiad,Valayam,Mariyur,Kottur,Pudipaddi,Vavad, Kuruvattur, Mavur, Olavanna.
Tamil
Nadu
Karur
Paramatti,Muntipalavau,Thantoni,Mayanur,Panjapatti, Kadavur, Kulittatai, Kadavur, Kulittatai, Krishnarayapuram
Villupuram
Avalurpettai,Gingee,Sankarapuram,Kallakkurichchi, Ulundurpettai, Tirukkovilur, Vlundurpetti, Vanum,Vallam
Coimbatore
Muttuppalaiyam,Avinashi,Tiruppur,Palladam,Udumallaippettai,Pollac
Salem
Mettur, Yercaud, Idappadi, Omalpur, Attur, Gangavalli, Sankagiri
Dharmapuri
Pennagaram, Harur, Pappireedipatti, Palakkodu, Pochampalli
Orissa
Kalahandi
Dharamgarh, Bhawanipatna, Lanjigarh, Jayapatna
Koraput
Kotapad,Boriguma,Jaypur,Machhakund,Nandapur,Singpuru,Bagra, Rayisingi,Jalaput,Gupteshwar.
Mayurbhanj
Hemagiri, Banel, Panposh, Raj Gangpur,
8.
Criteria and description of grades
a) AGMARK standards for rhizomes
Table 14.6: AGMARK standards for turmeric rhizomes a
Grade
Flexibility
Broken pieces, fingers<15
mm
Foreign matter
Defectives
Percentage of bulbs byweight, max.
No more than (% by weight)
No more than
(% by weight)
No more than
(% by weight)
Alleppey fingers b
Good
Hard to touch
5
1
3
4
Fair
Hard
7
1.5
5
5
Fingers, other than Alleppey b
Special
Hard to touch,
metallic twang on
break
2
1
0.5
2
Good
Same
3
1.5
1
3
Fair
Hard
5
2
1.5
5
“Rajapore” fingers c2
Special
Hard to touch, metallic twang on
break
3
1
3
2
Good
Same
5
1.5
5
3
Fair
Hard
7
2
7
5
Non
specified
-
-
4
-
-
Bulbs d
Special
-
-
1
1
-
Good
-
-
1.5
3
-
Fair
-
-
2
5
-
ahttp://www.turmeric.8m.com/standards.html
b: Fingers shall be of secondary rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.; shall be well set and close grained; free from bulbs; be perfectly dry and free from weevil damage and fungus attack; not be artificially coloured with chemicals.
c: same as (b); have the characteristics of the variety; admixture of varieties of turmeric allowed at a maximum of 2%, 5%, 10% and 10% in the four grades, respectively.
d: Bulbs shall be primary rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.; shall be well developed, smooth and free from rootlets; have the characteristics of variety; be perfectly dry and free from weevil damage and fungus attack; not be artificially coloured with chemicals
b) Agmark standard for turmeric powder
Table 14.7: Grade designation and definitions of quality of Turmeric Powder
Special Characteristics
Grade designation
Moistur e % by wt
Total ash %by wt max
Acid insoluble
ash, %by
wt max
Lead
(ppm)
max
starch
% by
wt max
chromate
test
General Characteristics
Standard
10.0
7.0
1.5
2.5
60.0
Negative
1. Turmeric powder shall be
prepared by grinding clean, dry
turmeric rhizomes.
2. It shall have its characteristic
taste, flavour and be free form
musty odour.
3. It shall be free form dirt, mould
growth & insect infestation.
4. It shall be free from any
colouring matter such as lead
chromate, preservatives and
extraneous material such as cereal
or pulse, ,flour or any added
starch.
5. It shall be ground to such a
fineness that all of it passes
through a 300 microne sieve.
Source: http://www.turmeric.8m.com/standards.html
Table 14.8: Grade designation and definitions of quality of Turmeric Powder (Coarse Ground)
Grade designation
Grade designation
Moisture % by wt
Total ash %by wt max
Acid
insoluble
ash, %by
wt max
Lead
(ppm)
max
starch % by
wt max
chroma
te test
General Characteristics
Standard
10.0
9.0
1.5
2.5
60.0
Negati
ve
1. Turmeric powder shall be
prepared by grinding clean, dry
turmeric rhizomes.
2. It shall have its characteristic
taste, flavour and be free form
musty odour.
3. It shall be free form dirt, mould
growth & insect infestation.
4. It shall be free from any
colouring matter such as lead
chromate, preservatives and
extraneous material such as cereal
or pulse, flour or any added starch.
5. It shall be ground to such
fineness that all of it passes
through a 500 micron sieve.
Source: http://www.turmeric.8m.com/standards.html
c) European Spice Association (ESA) quality and sanitation specifications
Table 14.9: ESA quality specifications
S.No.
Specification
Turmeric
Whole
Ground
1
Extraneous matter %
1
1
2
Foreign matter %
2
2
3
Ash % w/w max (ISO)
8 (BSI)
9(ISO)
4
Acid insoluble ash % w/w max
2(BSI)
2.5 (ESA)
5
Maximum water % w/w max
12(BSI)
10 (ISO)
6
Volatile oil
2.5(BSI)
1.5 (ESA)
7
Microbe c. Salmonella abs in 25 g, yeast & molds d. E. coli
105/g target, max 106/g absolute 102/g target, max 103/g absolute
Source:http//www.espspices.org/content/pdts/ESAQualityMinimalDocument191104.pdp
BSI : Bureau Standards Institute
ESA : European Spices Association
ISO : International Organization for Standardization
d) ASTA (American Spice Trade Association) Cleanliness Specifications for Turmeric:
Turmeric exported to USA should conform to the cleanliness specification stipulated by the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA)
Whole Insects dead(by count)
Excreta Mammalian (mg/lb)
Excreta Other
(mg/lb)
Mold % (wt)
Insect defiled
infested (% wt)
Extraneous Foreign
Matter(%/Wt)
3
5.0
5.0
3.0
2.50
0.50
9.
Packaging and its details
(a) For exports
Packaging is normally done in clean gunny bags and it should be polythene laminated gunny bags
(b) For domestic markets
For domestic markets, turmeric are packed in gunny bags and jute sacks.
10.
Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market
Turmeric grown in southern states like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh find major markets in states like Maharashtra, M.P, U.P, and further goes to Delhi, Punjab and Haryana.
Turmeric grown in Gujarat is distributed in nearby markets of Rajasthan.
Turmeric from Orissa and West Bengal finds markets in Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar etc.
Turmeric from Sikkim is distributed in North Eastern states.
11.
Price graph of turmeric
*The above graph showing the price (in Rs./Qtl.) of turmeric in leading states
12.
Exports and export potential
A. Domestic strengths for exporting turmeric
Domestic strengths for exporting turmeric are given below:
India is a largest producer of turmeric in the world.
India has bred improved and high yielding cultivars of turmeric
India is in dominant position as far as production; trade etc. of turmeric is concerned.
There is a strong research support for cultivation of turmeric on scientific lines, as Indian
Institute of Spices Research is located in Callicut and also State Agricultural Universities
in various states.
More than 80% of turmeric is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu states.
APEDA has sanctioned an Agri Export Zone for turmeric in Orissa state to enhance
export of turmeric from the state
B. Export
India has monopoly in turmeric trade at world level. Although India is the largest producer of turmeric in the world (846700 tons) but it exported only 6% of the total production. India, exported 51500 tons of turmeric during 2006-07. This is substantial compared to 37,644 tons during 2003-04. (Table 14.10 & Fig. 36).
Table 14.10: Export of turmeric from India
Year
Quantity(tons)
Value(Rs. Lakh)
2003-2004
37044.3
13111.7
2004-2005
43096.6
15625.0
2005-2006
46404.9
15286.0
2006-2007
51500.0
16480.0
Source: Spices Board, Cochin.
C. Export potential
Present exports and export potential of turmeric, region wise is discussed in the following pages:-
(i) GCC countries
India exported 9550 tons of turmeric to GCC countries. UAE imported maximum quantity of 7823 tons, whereas Saudi Arabia imported 1406 tons and Kuwait 320 tons. Export potential should be further exploited by exploring exports to Bahrain, Oman and Qatar.
(ii) Middle East countries
Exports of turmeric was mainly to Iran (6094 tons), Egypt (2057 tons), Morocco (736 tons), Israel (632 tons) etc. amounting approx. to 9821 tons. India must also explore the opportunity of exporting to Turkey, Algeria, Kenya, Yemen, Jordan etc.
(iii) European countries
Turmeric was exported to EU countries up to 9508 tons, the largest importers were UK (2896 tons), Netherlands (1816 tons), Germany (1155 tons), France (627 tons) etc. Turmeric was also exported to East European countries like Russia (567 tons) and Poland (47 tons). Export of turmeric needs to be explored in remaining European countries as there is huge potential for export.
(iv) ASEAN countries
Some amount of turmeric was also exported to ASEAN countries comprising Malaysia (2263 tons) and Singapore (622 tons). Export needs to be pursued in Philippines, also. There is no scope of exporting to Indonesia.
(v) Pacific Rim countries and China
India exported 2631 tons of turmeric to Japan as per APEDA database. There are no authentic figures about exports of Indian turmeric to South Korea and Australia, but as per Comtrade database India exported 267 tons to South Korea and 462 tons to Australia.Further exports to these countries need to be tried, but there is no potential of exporting to China, as this country is itself an exporting country.
(vi) U.S.A and Canada
Efforts for further enhancement of exports must be made. Since India is exporting only 6% of its total production, therefore adequate campaign needs to be launched highlighting healing properties of turmeric for boosting exports of turmeric. Export of turmeric needs to be further explored in Central and South American countries.
D. Measures for enhancing competitiveness in exports-
Following measures are likely to enhance the competitiveness in export of turmeric.
As far as turmeric is concerned, India is in dominant position; however, it has to maintain its position with other future competitors like Indonesia, China, etc.
India must enhance its product quality, cleanliness of fingers, etc.
India must also improve total productivity to remain in dominant position, so that it continues to supply at most competitive prices. For this, the area under high yielding cultivars needs to be increased by supplying micro tubers multiplied through tissue culture.
13.
Documents required for exports
a) Documents related to goods
a) Invoice b) Packing List c) Certificate of origi
b) Documents related to shipment
a) Mate Receipt b) Shipping Bill c) Bill of handing d) Airway Bill
c) Documents related to Payment
a) Letter of Credit (L/C) b) Bill of Exchange
d) Documents related to quality of goods
a) Phytosanitary Certificate b) GLOBALGAP Certification c) Health Certificate
e) Organic Certification
- Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming.
f) Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations
GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment.
g) Other Document
Bank Realization Certification (BRC): This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer.
14.
Chain of events (pack house up to shipment)

Harvesting

Cooking

Curing
Drying

Polishing

Storage

Shipment

15.
Price prevailing in international markets
The given below tables shows the annual average price range of turmeric in EU markets. The table 14.11 shows the pricing trend in the markets of EU countries.
Table 14.11: Summary of prices for turmeric in target markets for India
Country
Annual Average price Range (2003-08)
Currency
EU
USD/kg
0.84 to 1.73
INR/kg
38.15 to 78.08
Source: Comtrade Database
16.
Cost Calculation from harvest to packhouse to port
Cost estimates for exports of turmeric from India (as per information collected during 2008)
(a) Procurement price*:
Approx. price (Rs. /kg) : 30-40
*Price of turmeric varies according to variety, month of procurement
(b) Charges for sorting/grading, processing/grinding, packing, transport etc. (below in table):
Table 14.12: Charges for sorting/grading, processing/grinding, packing, transport, etc.
Particulars (Cost per kg)
20’ container (12500 kg)
Sorting / Grading
3.0
Processing / grinding
3.5
Packing (includes cost of packing material)
4.0
Loading truck/container
2.0
Transport to port includes C & F
2.0
Total
14.5
Source: Spices Board, Cochin

(c) Sea freight charges*:
Freight rates for ordinary container are as follows:
Ordinary containers
(Rates in US dollars)
20----------------’ 40’
(i) Dubai/Doha 600 900
(ii) Kuala Lampur/Singapore 100 175
(iii)Flaxo (UK)/Amsterdam 900 1450

* It varies from year to year /season to season, capacity of container and distance covered.
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